Espresso – Also known as a Short Black
An espresso served as a single shot is generally between 25ml-30ml and is extracted in approximately 25-30 seconds. A 1:2 ratio is a great starting point for espresso. A ratio of 1:2 simply means, for every 1 gram of ground coffee, your espresso must weigh twice that. You can read more on Espresso Brew Ratios here. Espresso’s are commonly served in an 80-90ml ceramic cup.
In Italian ristretto means ‘restricted’, and it literally translates into your coffee cup. A ristretto is a restricted version of an espresso. It is made by stopping the espresso extraction before the espresso starts to blonde. As a ristretto is less diluted with water it is more intense, with more body and less bitterness. Traditionally a ristretto is 15 to 20ml in volume and served in a ceramic cup.
A short macchiato is a 30ml shot of espresso with a teaspoon of hot steamed milk and dollop of micro foam. A short macchiato is served in a 90ml glass.
A long macchiato is a double espresso (60ml) served in a glass with a dollop of foam and a teaspoon of hot or cold milk. A long macchiato is served in a 220ml glass.
A Long Black is prepared by adding approximately 2/3rds boiling water into a cup then extracting a double shot of espresso (60ml) over the water. A popular coffee in Australia and New Zealand. Served in a 200-220ml Ceramic Cup. When prepared correctly a Long Black should have a layer of crema across the top.
Milk Based Coffee
A Piccolo Latte is a single ristretto shot 15ml -20ml topped with warm silky milk served in a 90ml glass or ceramic cup.
A flat white is prepared in a 200-220ml ceramic cup with a 30ml shot of espresso then topped with steamed milk. In cafes serving specialty coffee you may get a flat white in a 150-180ml. A flat white should have a thin layer of smooth micro foam covering the surface. A very popular coffee in Australia.
The well-known cappuccino has had some changes in the way it is served over the years. Long gone are the days with the high stacked white foam. Cappuccinos are espresso based with a 30ml shot, then topped with silky thick textured milk. It is essential that milk is textured correctly with silky micro foam. Once the milk is poured into the cup the cappuccino should have a dome and then dusted with chocolate powder. Cappuccinos are served in a 200-220ml ceramic cup.
A latte (shortened from Caffe Latte) is most commonly served in a 220ml glass. Prepared with a 30ml shot of espresso then topped with silky steamed milk to result in a 10-15mm layer of micro foam.
Mocha – Also known as a Mochaccino
A mocha is combination of a cappuccino and a hot chocolate. They are prepared the same as a cappuccino however chocolate powder is added into the espresso shot and stirred before adding the steamed milk and micro foam. Mochas are generally served in a tall glass with a handle, same as a hot chocolate.
An affogato is a great dessert coffee that is treat during summer and after dinner. It is made by placing one scoop of vanilla ice cream within a double shot of espresso. An affogato can be served in a 220ml glass or ceramic cup.
The Cortado originated in Spain. Served in a small glass 90ml-130ml, it has a shot of espresso and topped with an equal part of steamed milk with very little micro foam similar to a flat white.
Magic coffee originated in Melbourne, Victoria and is prepared in a ceramic cup 150ml-180ml. It is made with a double ristretto and topped with steamed milk. As it has a double ristretto as base a Magic has a creamy syrupy mouthfeel.